They also provide many other financial services such as Auditing Services, Accounting Services, AT and Tax related services, and various other services that will help your company to flourish. For any more details on the services provided by JAXA,Contact Us. The weighted average cost of capital calculates a firm’s cost of capital, proportionately weighing each category of capital. Companies may also find themselves at risk of becoming overcapitalized when they either mismanage or underutilize the capital they have at their disposal. Janet Berry-Johnson is a CPA with 10 years of experience in public accounting and writes about income taxes and small business accounting.

Between the equity, the entrepreneur contributes and the money they are able to raise from outside investors, the business should be able to be sufficiently capitalized. When starting a business, entrepreneurs should conduct an assessment of their financial needs and expenses—and err on the high side. Common expenses for a new business include rent and utilities, salaries or wages, equipment and fixtures, licenses, inventory, advertising, and insurance, among others. Since startup costs can be a significant hurdle, how to become a better investor is a common issue for young companies. High earnings, high profitability, and high market valuation of shares affects society in an adverse manner.

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The phrase ‘Under-capitalisation’ should never be misconstrued with inadequacy of capital. Truly speaking, this term is used to denote the state of affairs just converse of over-capitalisation. Companies promoted during a period of depression often experience under-capitalisation when inflation sets in because of a sudden rise in their earnings.

Higher profits earned by the companies give a psychological feeling to the customers that they are being over-charged and hence they develop grouse towards that company. Like over-capitalisation, under-capitalisation also has many evil effects on the company and its owners as well as the society as a whole. Where under-capitalisation is due to insufficiency of capital, more shares and debentures may be issued to the public. Higher rate of earnings will attract competition in the market. A company may have large secret reserves due to which its profitability is higher. In this case, the company is undercapitalized to the extent of $10,000,000.


Undercapitalization can be compared to a lean, thin, and weak person who cannot run effectively due to this weakness. In case of underutilization, a company may not be able to repay short-term debt. Although opposite in intent, both policies had the effect of creating overcapitalization in some sectors and undercapitalization in others.

The profits are higher than warranted by the book value of its assets. Such a company can pay a higher rate of dividend and the market value of its shares is much higher than its face value. The primary negative impact of undercapitalization is loss of growth due to lack of funds to support expansion.

Inability to mitigate probable future risks for e.g. no insurance against a likely event. Under capitalization can also cause companies to use their old and out of date equipment because of inability to buy new items or purchase new items. Companies established during recession make higher earnings as and when the recession is over. For which negotiations with the big lenders may be made to reduce the interest obligation. is a free service that lets you to preserve your original articles for eternity. We’re JAXA Chartered Accountants – An accounting firm based in Dubai which offers high quality Bookkeeping, Accounting, Auditing and Tax Preparation.

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The impact of overcapitalization for a company is that it is likely to be burdened with high interest obligations which it may not be able to fulfill. In fact, severe overcapitalization can lead to spiraling condition of further reduced earnings, reduction in share value and loss of investor confidence, if remedial steps are not taken. Overcapitalization is a financial situation in which the value of equity and debt issued by a company exceeds the value or worth of its assets, specifically its fixed assets.


Under-capitalisation does not pose any economic problem to the society. It encourages new entrepreneurs to set-up new ventures and encourages the existing ones to expand. Consumers get variety of products at relatively cheaper rate.

An over-capitalised company tries to increase the prices and reduce the quality of products, and as a result such a company may liquidate. In that case the creditors and the Labourers will be affected. Thus it leads to the mis­application and wastage of the resources of society. Under these circumstances, the book value of the corporation will be more than its real value. Under-capitalisation is an index of effective and proper utilisation of funds employed in the enterprise.


The cost of fixtures depends on your business location, the size and condition of your facility, the type of business you’re in, what kind of image you want it to project, and whether you’re purchasing new or used fixtures. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content.

  • In accounting, capitalization is an accounting rule used to recognize a cash outlay as an asset on the balance sheet, rather than an expense on the income statement.
  • The company may arrange cheaper debt at lower rate of interest at that stage resulting in increased earnings per share.
  • Undercapitalization also happens when the promoters of the company issue a smaller number of shares to their own shareholders than the required amount of capital.
  • In the insurance market, overcapitalization takes on a different meaning.

Knowing when new funds will be necessary and securing those funds ahead of the need is far easier than approaching a bank once there is a funding crunch in the business. In the insurance market, overcapitalization takes on a different meaning. Overcapitalization occurs when the supply of policies exceeds demand for policies, creating a soft market and causing insurance premiums to decline until the market stabilizes. Policies purchased in times of low premium levels can reduce an insurance company’s profitability. In consequence, earnings per share automatically are reduced. Take for example, a company has total capitalisation of Rs. 2,00,000 comprising share capital of Rs. 1,50,000 (divide in 3,000 shares of Rs. 50 per share) and surplus of Rs. 50,000.

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Again, this isn’t good for the company as its capitalized value is higher than its market worth. Companies end up becoming overcapitalized for any number of reasons including poor management and higher startup costs. Most cities and counties require business operators to obtain various licenses or permits to show compliance with local regulations.

This situation creates a soft market and causes insurance premiums to decline until the market stabilizes. Policies purchased when premiums are low can reduce an insurance company’s profitability. If a company has adequate surplus in hand the whole or a part of it can be capitalized by issue of bonus shares. Of course, make-up of capitalisation will undergo marked change. Thus, with issue of bonus shares, share capital will increase and so also the number of shares but surplus of the company will lie reduced by the amount of bonus shares. The real value of an under-capitalised company is more than its book value.

The company may follow a conservative dividend policy (i.e., moderate rate of dividend) thereby leading to enough funds for business expansion, machinery replacement etc. This will lead to higher rates of earnings and hence under-capitalisation. The promoters of the company at the time of preparing financial plan may under estimate future earnings or make under-estimation of capital requirements.

Under-capitalisation may lead to higher profits and higher prices of shares on the stock exchange. It may issue the minimum share capital and may meet the additional financial requirements through borrowings at lower rates of interest. A company may issue bonus shares to control underutilization. However, there are remides which incorporates the issue of bonus shares or raising par value shares.

This feeling may sow seeds of dissension among consumers at large and labour-management relation is disrupted. Establishment of more and more firms and expansion of existing ones helps to mitigate sufferings of unemployed persons. Purchasing power of newly employed people increases resulting in a rise in demand which, in turn leads to increase in investment and production. Through demand-investment and employment spiral the economy marches ahead to reach the pinnacle of prosperity. As a result of over-trading, creditors will not be paid timely and the company will effect its creditworthiness adversely.

The key benefit of undercapitalization is that the company can earn higher rate of return on its capital. Undercapitalization is a financial condition of a company in which the value of its capital is significantly lower than the quantum of its assets, specifically fixed assets. The benefit of overcapitalization on the other hand, is that the company has excess funds which it can apply productively in its business including for any acquisitions or expansions.

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